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        小組合作學習在小學數學教學中的運用    發布時間:2019-08-12 23:18:59
        小組合作學習在小學數學教學中的運用
        【摘要】隨著課改程度的不斷深入,小組合作學習教學策略在數學教學中的應用價值越來越受到重視,因為小組合作學習教學策略的應用可促進小學數學教學有效性得到顯著提高。本文主要探討小組合作學習教學策略的有效運用措施,旨在為這一教學方式的合理應用提供更多有價值的參考依據。
        【關鍵詞】小組合作學習;小學數學;教學;有效運用
        孔子曰:“三人行,必有我師焉。”說的是向他人學習長處,不斷提升自己。目前,我國的小學數學教學方式已經發生改變,慢慢的從傳統單一授課模式轉向引導學生學習模式,小學數學教學逐步從傳統的傳授式教學法向引導學生自主學習的方向改變。作為一種全新的教學策略,小組合作學習逐漸被廣大教育工作者所熟知,并在推廣、使用過程中獲得了廣泛認可。小組合作學習教學策略有效提升了學生學習的積極性,擴展了學生的知識面和認知度,促進了學生與學生、學生與教師之間的關系,能夠有效提升課堂教學質量。
        一、小組合作學習教學策略在小學數學教學中的運用策略
        1.根據學生的情況,合理分組
        因為每個家庭的環境和教育不同,學生自身的興趣愛好與性格也各盡不同。在學習上也是如此,因為每個學生的學習能力和知識接受程度不同,存在一定的差距,因此需要根據學生的實際情況,結合學生的性格等進行分組搭配,讓學生通過小組學習了解自身的不足。在課堂上的小組適合3-5人,教師可以根據學習的內容進行前后左右臨時搭配分組,教師需要根據班級學生人數進行分組。在分組的時候,不是根據學生成績先后分組,而是應遵循學習成績好的學生幫助學習成績差的學生,教師要確保小組中既有數學成績較好的學生,也有學習能力相對較差的學生,以增強學生之間的互助,促進小組成員之間的成長。
        2.引導學生進行小組互動學習,確認學生學習任務
        教師要在課堂中布置一些小組合作學習任務,并引導學生積極討論、探索有效的解決方法。等到學生完成學習任務后,教師要指導學生進行成果展示,以便小組之間互相學習、借鑒。例如,在講解“數量關系”知識時,教師先設置相關問題,進行分組,小組學生討論解答:小白媽媽給小白30元人民幣去買水果,假設葡萄5元一斤,橙子3元一斤,小白怎樣買水果才能將30塊錢花完?問題難度不大,多數的學生自主思考,可以找到解決方案。但是這個問題極具開放性,所以教師讓學生小組學習,小組通過討論,了解到不同的解決方式。小組學習方式能夠很好地激發學生的潛力,改變學生思考問題的方式,找到更多解決數學問題的方式。小組學生討論完畢之后,教師可以提問小組,讓小組學生說出他們解決這道數學題的方法,進而分享各組學生的討論成果,了解不同小組的學習方案。
        3.通過小組合作學習,提升小組競爭能力
        教師對學生進行合理、有效的分組,并根據實際教學情況安排合適的學習任務,讓小組以競爭比賽的形式來完成這些學習任務,然后再根據比賽的結果給予小組及其成員適當獎勵或表揚。例如,在進行“100以內的加法和減法”教學時,教師可以在課前出若干100以內的加、減法題目,并將其列于白紙上,然后在課堂中分發給小組,每組一張,然后讓各組同時開始作答,并對小組的解題時間進行記錄,最后,根據小組的解題時間和準確率進行排名,并給予排名前三的小組及其成員獎勵,特別表揚那些解題所用時間最少、解題準確率最高的同學。此外,教師也可以根據小組成員人數出題,在小組競爭比賽的過程中,規定每個成員最多只能解一道題,當解完題目后寫上自己的姓名,再將白紙傳遞給其他成員,直到所有題目全部解答完畢。在小組成員解題過程中,由其他成員對解題時間進行記錄。如此一來,教師便可以了解全體學生對100以內的加減法的掌握情況,從而可以更好地開展課堂教學。
        4.明確小組成員的分工
        對于小學生而言,他們在學習上并未形成總結的習慣,在小組合作學習之中,各自的責任也不明確。如果小組學習中,只有一個學生了解學習內容,其他學生不參與學習,則無法發揮小組合作學習的作用。例如在學習自然數時,教師讓每個小組成員選擇組長,讓組長負責小組的學習任務分配,協助教師協調同學之間的合作;一同學負責分析和記錄學習探討,一同學負責總結和發言,而其他同學負責了解數學課之中的相關學習要求,之后全組成員一起探討數學問題,讓每個同學都參與其中,從而有效增強了學生之間的合作精神。但是分組并非固定不變,可以根據時間長短進行調整,讓學生與學生之間加深交流,并且了解不同小組應采取的學習方式,讓學生以靈活的方式解決問題,同時也可以達到提高課堂效率的效果。
        二、結束語
        當前新課程改革進一步推進,傳統的教學模式和方法逐漸顯現出其弊端,無法適應學生學習和課程教學的發展需求。為了更好地培養學生對數學學習的興趣,提高教學質量和效率,教師可以將小組合作學習教學策略引入小學數學課堂教學中。在小學數學教學之中運用小組合作學習策略,能夠起到事半功倍的效果。小組合作學習策略既使小學生從小組討論中學習到知識,又能更好地掌握學習數學的方法,有效提升了小學生數學成績。小組合作學習策略加深了學生之間的學習交流,也加深了學生與學生之間的了解,提升了小學數學教學質量。
        【參考文獻】
        [1]傅開華.淺析小學數學教學中小組合作學習存在的問題及其解決策略[J].讀與寫(教育教學刊),2015,19(12):217.
        [2]王忠民.小學數學課堂教學策略研究———指導學生進行小組學習[J].遼寧教育研究,2003,10(04):73-74.
        作者:孟凡苓 單位:山東省鄒城市北宿鎮南屯小學
         



         

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