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        學講教育下的小學數學教學創新探析    發布時間:2019-08-12 23:22:48
        學講教育下的小學數學教學創新探析
        【摘要】倡導素質教育精神,落實素質教育政策是近些年各個省市的教育部門廣為關注的話題,為此各個省市都在為如何實施素質教育進行積極的嘗試,徐州市教育部門就此提出了學講教育的概念。本文為了正確而高效的開展素質教育活動,特以徐州市學講教育下的小學數學教學創新為出發點,并結合具體的教學實例進行詳細的介紹,旨在更好的提高學講教育在小學數學教學中的實施效果。
        【關鍵詞】小學數學 學講教育 分層教學
        學講教育是以學生為主體,以學生自主學習、小組匯報、教師指導為主線的一種新型的教育方式,學講教育的出現徹底顛覆了傳統教育的觀念,為現代化的教育教學注入了新鮮的活力。
        一、學講教育創新之一:教師注重教學引導
        小學生學習的自主性和理解能力都存在一定的不足,這就意味教師在教學中的引導作用非常的重要。“負數的初步認識”這一單元的內容是小學數學教學的重點內容,為了落實素質教育學講教學的精神,絕大多數的教師傾向于通過自主教學的模式加以實現,事實上對于小學生來說這一章節的內容比較的抽象,學習起來難度也比較大,特別是一些在數學學習方法上拿捏不準的后進生來說更是一次艱難的挑戰,一旦這部分學生沒有跟上正常的自主學習步驟,他們的學習自信心就會受到嚴重的打擊,學講教學效果也會出現很大的落差。所以在這一單元內容的教學中,教師的指導就顯得更加的重要。教材中為了引出負數的概念,通過了三個生活中實際的案例進行了圖示說明,并在溫度計上清晰的展示了出來,教師在上課前可以要求學生將課本合上,并以第一個溫度生活實例進行講解,通過溫度引出本節課要學習的內容,也由此激發學生對所要學習內容的興趣。最后教師可以進一步進行點撥:同學們用‘零上20攝氏度’和‘零下20攝氏度’的方式來表示溫度是不是太麻煩了呢?誰可以用一些特殊的符號來區分零上和零下呢?”在教師的引導下,學生可以快速的確認“零上”可以用正數代替,分歧主要在于“零下”該如何表示,有的學生認為可以用“↓”表示;有的學生認為可以用“0”表示;有的學生認為可以用“←”表示……對此學生們都發揮了其豐富的想象,在一番了解之后,教師便可以引導學生:“同學們的想法都非常的好,也非常的正確,不過為了統一大家的想法,讓書寫變得更具規則,請大家打開課本自主學習一下,看看教材中是如何進行表示的呢?”這樣學生在教師的引導下開啟了自主學習的環節,我認為學生在經教師點撥之后的自主學習更具方向性,也更具效果。
        二、學講教育創新之二:確立分層教學模式
        分層教學模式堅持了以人文本的學講教學理念,在分層教學模式中,我們提倡根據不同學生的學習情況將其分配到不同的層次,然后結合不同層次學生的學習特點,具有針對性的實施學講教學策略,以此提高不同層次學生對數學學習的信心。在以往的學講教育中,教師一般將不同層次的學生安排在一個學習小組中,目的在于實現“以一帶一”的效果,但是這種構建模式的弊端在于在同一個學習小組中,有的學生會感覺學習的內容太過簡單,而有的學生則感覺學習過于吃力,由此造成不同層次的學生都不能實現自身學習的需要,這時如果教師適時的加入分層教學模式,便會讓學講教學錦上添花。在講到“長方體和正方體”這一單元的內容時,教師可以將同等層次的學生分配到同一個學習小組中,然后對不同層次的學習小組提出不同的學習目標和學習策略。對于理解能力強、學習速度快的學習小組,教師完全可以使之以理論想象的方式實現最終的學習效果,學生通過自主學習很容易就能理解“棱”、“邊”和“頂角”的概念,以及“從不同角度觀察最多可以看到的面數”等等,教師在小組中只需要將本節課的學習重點告知學生,便能夠實現高效的學習效果。對于學習能力落后的學習小組,教師的指導任務也變得相對較重,教師可以為這樣的學習小組準備一定的實物模型,讓學生對照實物模型進行有關的學習。如小組中的成員無法通過想象理解長方體棱、邊、角的數量,教師就可以讓學生對照著實物模型進行觀察和測量,讓學生在對實物模型觀察的基礎上學習有關的數學知識。此外小組匯報也可以采取分層匯報的模式,讓不同層次的小組都能夠在自身能力可達范圍之內進行學習的匯報。如此不同學習層次的學生都能夠在有限的時間內獲得最佳的學習效果,也讓不同層次的學生在一定的范圍內獲得學習的成功感,從而提高全班學生的學習自信心。
        三、學講教育創新之三:創設輕松課堂氛圍
        一個輕松的課堂氛圍對于數學教學來說有著非常重要的作用,同樣為了學講教育能夠得到有效的貫徹落實,課堂氛圍的創設就顯得更加的重要。首先學講教學形式應該進行全面的創新。學講教學模式不能僅限于自主學習和小組發言,教師完全可以從為學講教學增添更多的樂趣,游戲、表演、競賽等活動都是不錯的選擇。其次可以利用多媒體的教學輔助。現代化的多媒體教學讓學講教學變得更加的多彩,在教學中教師可以通過多媒體的聲、色、動態等特點為學生營造一個歡快有趣的數學課堂,如在“平移、旋轉和軸對稱”的教學中,多媒體可以模擬出實物的平移、旋轉和軸對稱等動態形式,很容易為學生創設出真實的學習情境,學生在真實的學習情境中更容易表達出自己的觀點,也更容易真正的融入數學課堂,進而讓學講教學獲得更好的發展。小學數學學講教育的創新需要我們的教師堅持與時俱進的教育思想和積極向上的策略探討,注重教師的引導、分層教學模式的確立、和輕松課堂氛圍的創設,這樣小學數學學講教育才能朝著創新的方向發展,才能為社會輸送有用的人才。
        參考文獻:
        [1]夏立新.自主創新的小學數學課堂教學模式研究[J].江蘇教育,2003(12).
        作者:胡紅玲 單位:睢寧縣睢城小學
         


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