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        有效性小學數學教學    發布時間:2019-08-12 23:27:56
        有效性小學數學教學
        一、小學數學缺乏有效性教學
        首先有效教學是我國第三次課改當中的重點思路,但是針對有效性教學的教學設計卻不多,這是如今有效教學缺失的重點,而作為小學數學來說,它的作用是在教會學生進行基礎的加減乘除同時讓學生理解數學、熱愛數學,這是其教學目的以及大綱總之,但是現在針對這方面的教學設計并不多,教師在教學的過程中無法秉持第三次課改的思想,總是習慣性的按照原有的教學思路進行教學設計,將小學生的思路全都掌控在自己的設計當中,沒有給學生留下空白,這種高強度的教學設計反而不利于學生的學習發展;其次小學生的理解能力并不高,小學數學原本就是針對小學生做的教材設計,但是現在一些教師在“課改”的壓力下,為了凸顯教學的“質量”常常提升小學數學題的難度,將一些超出小學生理解范圍的課題引入其中,使得小學數學產生了難度,雖然這樣的難度對于學習好的孩子來說能夠解決,但是并不適合其他孩子,反而影響了數學興趣在課堂上的傳播與發展;再次有效性學習的概念界定并不清晰,一些教師總是將有效性學習和考試成績掛鉤,還是喜歡用應試教育當中的考試水準來衡量孩子在課堂上是否得到了有效培養,著從本質上誤解了小學數學有效性的開展,從第三次課改的文件當中可以看出,小學數學有效性體現在快樂學習、記憶學習、理解學習三大方面,從孩子本身出發,以快樂的思想輔助課堂教學的展開,以多理解多記憶的方式讓孩子的到更好的知識獲取,而不是一味的增強孩子的訓練,讓孩子適應考試;最后無法把握有效性學習當中“快樂教學”的度,常常會在有效性、情景模式開展、“快樂教學設計”這三個板塊當中失去界定,使得教學思維混亂,經常是課改調查組到來就進行新的模式教學,調查組走了以后在進行原有的課程設定,這樣反復對孩子的學習以及認知能力造成了一定的影響。
        二、如何進行有效性教學
        綜上所述,有效性教學要緊緊把握住“有效”這兩個關鍵字,在遵循第三次課改的過程當中積極的采用最新的教學思路,同時輔助對孩子的調查研究,因為,每個學校的教學環境不同,每個孩子的成長不同,甚至每個孩子的思維模式不同,都會對課堂有效性的開展造成阻礙,有人認為教學時一刀切的過程,設定一個適中的方案從而進行教學,讓大部分孩子接受這樣的教學設定,也有人認為“適中”的教學設計方案缺乏方向的把握,缺乏對“特殊群體孩子”的照顧,缺乏公平性,因此這樣的方案本身就不能有效的針對教學,作者的觀念更偏向于后種,有效性的教學關鍵就是讓所有孩子都能在課堂上獲得知識的補充,讓孩子了解教學的概念,了解教學思路,讓孩子清晰的認識到教學過程當中自身存在的問題,讓教師發現這些問題并著重解決這些問題,小學數學是非常重要的學科,我們如今在社會上能用到的數學知識與小學數學99%都有掛鉤,反而初中、高中、大學的數學與生活現實太過遙遠,而正是因為小學數學有效,我們更應當注重其課堂上的有效性,讓所有的孩子都掌握數學知識,并讓其應用到自身的生活當中,作者認為,真正的有效不在于課堂的練習、不再去考試取得的成績,而在與能否與實際生活相關聯,能否終生使用!因此在面對小學數學有效性這一問題上,我們要拋開所有阻礙孩子對數學認知的障礙,讓孩子充分的體驗到數學與生活能夠充分結合,如此才能調動孩子的興趣,進一步增強有效性。
        三、小學數學有效教學研究的反思
        小學數學有效教學的研究取得了一定成效,但也存在一些待深入研究的問題。如小學數學有效教學內涵的界定,小學數學有效教學的課堂教學結構體系的構建,小學數學課堂教學有效性的評價,小學數學有效教學的心理機制等問題都值得深入研究。新課程在諸多方面發生了巨大的變化,這些變化給老師們帶來的不適應主要集中在以卜幾方面。首先,教學理念與新課程的要求不適應。例如,“倡導積極主動、勇于探索的學習方式”是小學數學的主要課程理念之一,并且《課標教材》也充分體現了這一理念,但在實際教學中,老師們很少能通過提出具有探究價值的問題,給學生留有充分的時問去思考和探究,最終由學生獲得結論,建構自己的認知結構。其次,專業知識與新課程內容的不適應。例如,新課程增加了“算法初步”的內容,但由于絕大多數老師沒有學過(除部分年輕老師大學期問學習過計算機語言如這些內容,另外還有近三分之一的老教師沒有學習過英語,加之多數學校沒有達到每個班有多媒體等硬件設施,因此教學這部分內容十分困難。面對新的教學理念、新的教學內容、新的教學目標,以及經歷了義務教育數學課程改革的學生,“教什么”、“如何教”、“教到什么程度”等問題,都是每位教師必須思考的問題,并且需要拿出具體的應對策略。要解決這一問題,最佳突破口就是教師要給自己充電、洗腦。第一,要認真學習《標準》及相關的文獻,最好通過與《教學大綱》進行比較,認真研究《標準》每一部分的具體要求,以便做到“教有所依”。第二,要認真研究教材,在做到把握教材整體脈絡的同時,深刻領會教材的編寫意圖,提高駕馭教材的能力。
        作者:趙進波 單位:山東省濟寧市金鄉縣魚山街道崔口小學
         


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