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        有效轉化小學數學學困生的策略分析    發布時間:2019-08-12 23:51:43
        有效轉化小學數學學困生的策略分析
        摘要】在數學課堂教學改革不斷深入的今天,班級的學困生已更多地得到關注與重視。如何有效激發他們的學習興趣,讓他們也能體驗到成功與快樂,教師可從情感、教法、幫扶、作業等方面著手,促使學困生得到有效轉化、提升。
        關鍵詞】小學數學;學困生;有效轉化
        由于學生的學習習慣、知識接受能力等方面的差異,每個班級都有一些學困生,他們需要教師從情感、教學方法等方面予以關心與幫助。創設平等對話的課堂氛圍,實施靈活有效的教學方法,建立平等互助的幫扶小組,設計個性鮮明的分層作業,都能有效地激發學困生的學習興趣,提升他們的學習能力,讓他們體驗到成功與快樂,筆者在日常數學教學中進行了一些相關嘗試,取得了一定的效果。
        1.營造平等對話的氛圍,主動拉近師生距離
        “和、愛”教育是我校的辦學特色,構建和諧、愉悅的數學課堂,是促使學困生不斷前行的動力。作為教師,需要營造民主、和諧、愉悅的對話氛圍,給予學困生更多展示自我的機會,讓他們感受來自老師與同伴的愛與關注。事實上,一個親切的問候,一個贊賞的目光,都會激發學困生不竭的學習動力。如在教學四年級(下冊)“平移與旋轉”單元第二課時,我先讓學生回答小船先向()平移了()格,再向苦()平移了()格。學生高高地舉起手,看著小軍同學舉起的手又悄悄收回去了,似乎想要回答,我微笑地對他說:“沒關系,你試試看,相信自己,一定能行!”他輕聲地講述了小船平移的過程,介紹了數平移格數的方法,盡管還不是很有條理,聲音也不夠響亮,但同學們馬上給以熱烈的掌聲,使他獲得了自信與快樂。
        2.靈活多變的教學方法,促進學生主動參與
        學困生接受知識有些緩慢,思維能力也不夠強。因此在教學方法上要做到靈活多變,教師語言要生動形象,能關注到他們的認知經驗和接受能力,降低難度,分散難點。如在教學四年級(上冊)“用畫圖的策略解決問題”時,學困生對如何畫圖表示有很大困難。教學中,教師沒有采用多媒體動態演示,而是采用及時提問的方法:“長減少是什么意思?”長減少就是將原來的兩條長變短了,面積自然就會比原來的減少。所以我們畫圖時先要找到長,想想變短了的意思,再動手畫。這樣教學方法的改變喚醒了學生的無意注意,難題就順利而解了。又如,為幫助他們提高解決問題的審題能力,可以引導他們先讀題,圈出關鍵字、說出關鍵字的意思,簡要復述題目,再分析數量關系。如求平均每個季度用水多少噸,可自行提問,由平均每個季度想到一年有幾個季度。這樣堅持訓練,學生的審題能力和分析能力可以得到進一步的提升。
        3.幫扶互助,提升輔導實效
        實踐表明,兒童之間的交流有時比師生之間的交流更為融洽,他們以兒童特有的對話方式,互幫互助,共同提高。教師要用更多的時間幫助這些學生,走近他們的心靈,及時輔導,幫助他們克服學習上的困難,疏導思想上的困惑。在班級中,我們讓每個學困生自行找一個數學成績優異的同學做自己的師傅,結成幫扶對子,教師幫助建立幫扶檔案,定期對幫扶效果進行評價,予以表揚獎勵。課堂上的小組探究,課間、放學后的悉心輔導隨處可見,幫扶效果顯著。如在教學“認識角”這節課時,在動手創造角的環節,各小組利用教師提供的材料或自己的材料創造角,師徒動手。小組內有這樣的一段對話:“我用吸管做出了個角,你來指指角的頂點和兩條邊。對,指邊的時候要從頂點開始,匯報時,不要緊張,聲音要響亮,你一定行。”這樣的對話,無疑是師傅對徒弟的一種鼓勵與肯定。果然,小組匯報時師徒兩人,一人展示,一人能說,配合默契,精彩紛呈。
        4.布置彈性作業,體驗快樂學習
        作業是對新知識鞏固和應用的過程。教師在設計作業時,應更多地考慮學困生的學習特點和完成能力,布置作業時突出分層,通常可設為基礎練習題、綜合運用題和挑戰自我題三部分,難度逐步增加,采用闖關或奪星等形式,提高練習的趣味性。對多數學困生來說,他們完成基礎練習題就算過關了,教師可根據基本題的完成情況,予以輔導,對完成不錯的學生可自行挑戰下面兩關,體驗“跳一跳”就能成功的感覺。例如,在學習了“相交與平行”后,我設計這樣一組練習。基本題:利用掌握的知識直接判定下面幾組直線中哪些相交,哪些互相平行。綜合運用題:在圖形中或字母中找出互相垂直或者互相平行的線段。挑戰自我題:在長方體的面上找互相垂直或者互相平行的線段,畫出從喜羊羊家到河邊挑水的最短路線。學困生多數能順利完成第一關的基本題,不少學生還順利進入第二關、第三關,在充滿趣味的闖關練習中,體驗數學學習的快樂.
        作者:金春煥 單位:南通師范學校第一附屬小學
         


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