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        小學數學論文:源于生活用于生活    發布時間:2019-08-12 23:51:57
        源于生活  用于生活
         
        廣西合浦縣星島湖鄉洋江小學     張小龍
         
        數學源于生活,又廣泛應用于生活。在實際生活中運用所學數學知識,處理實際問題是小學生的數學素養之一。新課程標準強調數學教學要“從學生已有的生活經驗出發”,“使學生獲得對數學知識的理解”。數學知識的生活化,就是通過將數學教材中枯糙、脫離學生實際的數學知識還原,取之于學生生活實踐并具有一定真實意義的數學問題,以此來溝通“數學與現實生活”的聯系,激發學生學習數學的興趣。新版的小學數學課本也正朝這個方向在努力。如何運用新教材,創造性地發揮教師的主觀能動性,使數學教學更貼近學生生活,從而培養學生運用數學知識解決實際問題的能力和素養,是我們不斷實踐和探索的主題。
        一、讓學生在生活中感悟數學。
         “數學是人們對客觀世界定性把握和定量刻畫、逐漸抽象概括、形成方法和理論,并進行廣泛應用的過程。”因此,數學教學,只有從學生的生活經驗出發,讓學生在生活中學數學、用數學,數學教學才能煥發生命活力。
        1、在小學數學教學中,從生活實際出發,把教材內容與“數學現實”有機結合起來,符合小學生的認知特點,可以消除學生對數學知識的陌生感,同時增強數學的應用意識,喚起學生的學習興趣。例如:如教學循環小數概念時,我先給學生講永遠講不完的故事:“從前,山上有座廟,廟里有個老和尚在說從前山上有座廟……”,通過實例讓學生初步感知“不斷重復”,再舉出自然現象“水→汽→云→水”的循環引出“循環”的概念,使學生產生濃厚的興趣。
        2、小學數學中的許多概念和法則都是在現實生活中抽象出來的,因此概念法則的教學也就必須在生活實際中找到相應的實例,并引導學生從直觀入手從而抽象出來,逐步加深理解和運用。例如:在教學應用題常見的數量關系時,學生對于“工作效率×工作時間=工作總量”中的“工作效率”不易理解。為此,我在教學前,在班里舉行了一次口算比賽和跳繩比賽。教學新課時,聯系兩次比賽活動,學生就非常容易理解“工作效率”這一抽象而又陌生的概念:即指單位時間內所作的工作量。又如在學習“接近整百整十數加減法的簡便算法”中,有這樣一題:128-96=128-100+4,學生對減100時要加上4 難以理解。我便設計了一個“買東西找零錢”的生活實際:我要過生日了,媽媽帶了128元錢去商店買一個96元的布娃娃準備送給我。媽媽付給營業員一張百元鈔票(應把128元減去100元),營業員找回4元,(應加上4元)。所以,多減去的4應該加上。這樣的“生活教學”例子,通過生活經驗驗證了抽象的運算,而具體的經驗更提煉上升為理論(簡便運算的方法),學生容易理解且不易忘記。
        讓數學回到生活,使學生感到數學就在身邊,學習數學是有用的、有必要的,從而激發學好數學的愿望。
        二、讓數學知識回歸學生生活。
        學習是為了應用。因此,教師在教學中要經常培養學生聯系生活實際、運用數學知識,解決問題的意識和能力。知識也只有運用才能被學生真正掌握,也只有在實踐運用中才能體現其價值。
        1、創設情境,培養學生解決實際問題的能力
        學生掌握了某項數學知識后,可以有意識地創設一些把所學知識運用到生活實際中的情境。例如,在學習了利息后,讓學生去銀行了解利息、利息稅等有關知識,讓學生當家長的小參謀:家中多余的錢怎樣存最合算?并幫助家長計算利息和利息稅。
        2、聯系實際,增強學生的數學意識
        數學知識在日常生活中有著廣泛的應用,生活中處處有數學。例:如學了三角形的穩定性后,可以讓學生觀察生活中哪些地方運用了三角形的穩定性。學習了圓的知識,讓學生從數學的角度說明為什么車輪的形狀是圓的,其它形狀的行不行?為什么?
         3、加強操作,培養學生把所學知識運用于實際的能力。
        知識來源于實踐,又指導于實踐。我們經常看到由于學生的感性知識缺乏,出現不符合客觀生活實際的數量意識。這就要求我們的課堂教學更要注重聯系實際,強化學生的動手操作活動。在學習了米、厘米以及如何進行測量之后,讓學生運用掌握的數學知識解決生活中的實際問題。如測量身高,測量手臂伸開的長度,測量一步的長度,測量教室門的寬度以及測量窗戶的寬度,通過上述活動,加深學生對厘米和米的理解,鞏固用刻度尺量物體長度的方法,同時,學生獲得了日常生活中一些常識性數據。在這個活動中提高了學生的學習興趣和實際測量的能力,讓學生在生活中,在生活中用。
        學習了平均數問題后,讓學生以小組為單位,自選專題,展開活動,如:測量計算班級同學的平均身高、平均體重、平均年齡,全校各班的平均人數、教師平均年齡,附近菜場某一蔬菜的平均價格等。學生在互相協作活動中,自然而然地鍛煉了他們解決實際問題的能力。  
        運用數學知識解決生活實際問題,能實現數學與生活的緊密結合,幫助學生學會用數學的眼光觀察生活,從而不斷體驗數學的價值與魅力。
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
        源于生活  用于生活
         
         
         
         
         
         
        廣西合浦縣星島湖鄉洋江小學     張小龍
         


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