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          小學 一年級上冊 一年級下冊 二年級上冊 二年級下冊 三年級上冊 三年級下冊 四年級上冊 四年級下冊 五年級上冊 五年級下冊 六年級上冊 六年級下冊

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        愉快教學讓課堂輕松快樂    發布時間:2019-08-11 10:14:37
        愉快教學讓課堂輕松快樂
        天長市建東小學   李玲
        興趣是學習最好的老師,在多年來的教學活動中,我感覺到興趣是推動學生積極學習的強大動力,創設愉快的教學情景是推動學生積極學習的先決條件。因此,我在教學中注意發揮學生的主體作用,靈活運用多種愉快教育方法,激發學生的學習興趣,收到了較好效果。
        一、開動腦筋編兒歌,培養識譜興趣
        識譜知識的傳授在音樂教學中是不可缺少的一部分。學生掌握好識譜知識,可以更加準確地唱好歌曲、理解歌曲。為使學生對枯燥無味、難學難記的識譜知識感興趣,我常把一些識譜知識編成兒歌幫助他們學習,培養他們的學習興趣。如在教學生認識五線譜的線數和間數時編了如下的兒歌,讓他們邊指邊讀:
        張開左手掌,手心向外翻;
        五個小手指,就是五條線;
        四個手指空,就是四個間;
        從下往上數,一二三四五
        好象上樓梯,越上音越高。
        這樣的兒歌,學生既動手又動腦,流暢上口,易懂易記,使他們對五線譜產生了濃厚的學習興趣,收到了事半功倍的效果。
        二、啟發學生表現美,激發唱歌興趣
        唱歌最大的目的是給人以美的享受和感染。我們不能只滿足于教學生唱會一首歌,重要的是要啟發學生準確地表達出歌曲的感情和藝術形象,進入歌曲的意境,用自己的真情去演唱和體味。只有這樣,學生才能進入表現音樂的最佳狀態,唱出的歌聲真摯動聽,從而具有強烈的感染力和生命力。要做到這一點,首先要使學生充分理解歌曲的內容。對于理解能力差的低年級學生來說,如果教師僅用抽象的語言去引導學生理解歌曲是遠遠不夠的,教師要把音樂同學生的生活融為一體,結合他們生活中熟悉的事物和詞語,作形象的比喻和講解,把歌曲蘊涵的豐富情感和藝術美挖掘出來,激發學生學習的興趣,引導他們將整個身心投入到唱歌中去,正確地、創造性地表達出歌曲的情感和藝術美。如我在教學生唱《火車開啦》時,只領學生按節奏讀了兩遍歌詞,他們就會唱了。但由于學生想象不到歌中小朋友乘坐火車時的激動心情,部分學生唱起來很呆板,面無表情。對此,我便啟發學生:“你們誰見過、坐過火車,能說一下自己坐火車時的心情嗎?”這一問,同學們可來情緒了,紛紛舉手回答。接著我又問:“假如你就是歌曲中的小朋友,現在就要坐火車去北京,到你非常非常向往的地方去。當火車‘咔嚓、咔嚓’啟動的時候,你的心情怎么樣?”這下,課堂氣氛異常活躍,同學們爭著舉手回答,他們說著,笑著,沉浸在美好想象的歡樂之中。我又說:“同學們,現在老師就帶你們去‘旅游’,你們想到哪兒去呢?”同學們高興地喊起來:“青島”、“北京”、“上海”、“廣州”。“好!咱們先到北京去看看吧!老師來當播音員。”于是我當起了列車播音員,音樂一起,同學們便高興地唱起來,好象自己真的坐上了火車,歌聲中充滿了真摯的情感,歌聲中浸染著美的色彩。
        三、引導學生做表演,增強學習興趣
        表演與音樂是緊密聯系的,表演是教學中倍受學生喜愛的內容之一。低年級學生活潑好動,每學一首歌曲,我都根據歌詞內容啟發他們進行律動或表演,以幫助他們更好地理解歌曲,記憶歌詞。在啟發學生表演時,我是這樣做的:①啟發學生進行即興表演;②根據學生表演編排一套好的動作教給學生;③個別檢查。在個別檢查時,學生常常會被一些漂亮的動作和優美的造型所吸引,教學里常常會自發地爆發出熱烈的掌聲。臺下的“觀眾”紛紛舉手要求上臺表演,連平時最膽小的學生也躍躍欲試,臺上的表演者因此更加起勁,課堂氣氛達到高潮。這樣一來,不但培養了學生的表演能力,加深了學生對歌曲的理解,而且也增強了學生的學習興趣。
        四、自制樂器練伴奏,提高學習興趣
        學生學習打擊樂器的演奏,不但可以培養他們的節奏感和識譜能力,而且還能培養學生的審美能力。由于條件所限,各種打擊樂器都不能達到人手一件,這就大大影響了學生的情緒。為了取得更好的教學效果,我發動學生在家長幫助下自制打擊樂器,如用易拉罐或小瓶子裝入沙子作沙捶;用鐵絲將酒瓶蓋兒串在一起當串鈴;用兩個香脂盒對擊做小镲,用鉛筆敲紙盒當小鼓等。學生們用自制的樂器邊唱邊奏得意極了。我在教學生學唱《過新年》時,做了這樣一個集體練習:全班學生分為4個組,第一組擊小鼓,第二組打小镲,第三組唱歌,第四組手持彩綢表演。寓藝術熏陶于表演之中,使學生體會到自己是課堂的主人,這既培養了學生的想象力和創造力,又提高了學生的學習興趣。
        五、圖、講、演結合,誘發欣賞興趣
        欣賞音樂,不僅需要形象思維能力、邏輯思維能力,而且需要欣賞者用自己經歷過的生活閱歷和經驗去感知體驗。小學生正處于從具體形象思維向抽象邏輯思維過渡的階段,生活閱歷淺,經驗積累少,要使他們真正理解音樂,達到陶冶性情、培養情操的目的,就必須根據他們的思維特點,通過形象活潑的畫面、生動有趣的故事、簡短的啟發談話等形式,運用聽覺和視覺同步感知的方法來幫助他們理解作品,然后再讓他們在動聽的樂曲聲中自由充分地想象、體驗,使其根據各自對音樂的理解程度,及直接、間接和形象的記憶,用不同的顏色、線條、文字、動作表現出來。例如,鋼琴曲《騎竹馬》是一首非常短小的曲子,樂曲頭尾部分以輕快的節奏和弱拍上的突發強音,風趣地表現兒童騎竹為馬、奔跑雀躍的歡快情景;中間部分表現兒童模擬勒馬動作環顧四周的諧謔情緒。在指導學生欣賞時,我先結合插圖講了兒童比賽騎竹馬時的熱烈場面,然后初聽音樂一遍,復聽音樂時讓學生舉手表示出中間部分的音樂。為使學生更好地感知歌曲的情緒,再聽音樂時便讓幾名學生拿著教桿、尺子當馬騎,同學們興高采烈、情緒高漲,表演得非常精采。在這個從感知到體驗的欣賞過程中,學生如聞其聲,如見其形,從而更準確地把握作品,深刻地理解音樂,充分欣賞音樂之美。
        總之,在音樂教學中,教師要積極、努力創造愉悅的學習情景,盡可能使每一教學步驟都具有趣味性、啟發性、創造性,著力激發學生的興趣,讓他們在歡樂活潑的氣氛中積極主動地獲取知識,從而讓課堂變成歡樂的海洋。


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