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        淺談如何有效開展小學音樂欣賞教學    發布時間:2019-08-11 10:21:07
         淺談如何有效開展小學音樂欣賞教學
              黑龍江省齊齊哈爾市梅里斯區教師進修學校      李永德
        黑龍江省齊齊哈爾市梅里斯區達呼店小學校      王  維 
        《音樂課程標準》提倡教育以審美為核心。在音樂課程中,欣賞這一教學領域被視為培養學生音樂審美能力的有效途徑。教師只要精心制定教學過程,通過簡明、生動、富有啟發性的講解提示,倡導“以音樂為本,從音響出發,以聽賞為主”的教學理念,將聽者從原本對音樂無意識的“聽”進入對音樂內涵的感覺和理解,每一個人都可以成為音樂的欣賞者。
        (一)運用多種教學手段使學生有興趣地進行欣賞
        運用多媒體課件、實物展示和實物演奏等手段,充分調動學生的學習興趣和積極性。例如,在進行三年級的音樂欣賞課二胡獨奏《賽馬》的教學活動中,我通過讓學生認識、接觸實物二胡,體會二胡的演奏方式,感受二胡的音色,引起學生欣賞的興趣。接著, 我運用課件來幫助學生理解作品,利用賽馬的動畫感受熱烈歡騰的賽馬情景。音畫結合,更加深了學生對音樂作品的理解深度。為讓學生更好地理解三個樂段所表現的不同音樂形象,我動用課件讓學生進行比較,通過學生自主討論,給了學生更多的藝術想象和生活聯想。最后,我讓學生進行分組創編,充分展示自己對樂曲的理解,使欣賞活動達到一個高潮。
        (二)充分利用豐富的想象力,激起學生的共鳴
        小學生的年齡特點決定了他們富于想象的思維特點,用音樂打開學生想象的閘門,培養他們的發散思維能力,這對音樂教育工作者來說是一個嶄新的課題,又是一個行之有效的捷徑。在音樂欣賞課教學過程中,我告訴同學們,由于每個人的經歷不同、文化素質不同,所處生活環境不同,對音樂的理解也會不盡相同。一首優秀的樂曲帶給人們的想象也應該不是單一的,應該是多姿多彩的。在學生欣賞《童年》這首樂曲時,我要求每一個學生都要敞開心扉,用自己的心,獨立地去感受音樂帶來的震撼,進而喚起無盡的遐想。音樂播完以后,我要求同學們各抒己見,發揮創造力給樂曲起名字,同時說明自己為什么要起這個名字。
        (三)運用身體語言讓學生大膽表現音樂
        瑞士音樂教育家達爾克羅茲認為:在音樂上,凡聲音的強弱、速度的快慢、節奏的長短、聲音的高低等各種變化的動感,均可以身體的動作予以表現,特別是節奏。凡有節奏,就有律動;凡律動均有節奏。個體對音樂的身體反應是直覺的、自然的、即興的。在課上,我認為,學生應以身體作為一種“樂器”,隨著音樂自由運動。學生通過走、跳、跑,自行創造表現與他們所聽到的音樂相應的動作。每個人對自己所聽到的音樂都有不同的理解并做出相應的動作,這就最大限地發揮了學生的創造性和想象力。例如,欣賞《賽馬》時,我讓學生用身體樂器來表現馬蹄聲、馬鞭聲、鈴鐺聲等。學生想出了彈舌、拍手、拍腿、雙腳重重跳等表現方法。這就充分調動了大家感受音樂的能動性,勇于大膽地表現音樂。
        (四)用打擊樂為樂曲伴奏
        隨音樂表現節奏,讓學生綜合聽覺、認知、技能,與作曲家、樂團打成一片是何等的有趣而有成就感。凡是結構簡單、節奏明顯、速度適中的樂曲均可在欣賞的時候一起演奏。在欣賞過程當中,學生不知不覺地培養了良好的節奏感,正確的演奏技巧和與他人合作的意識。我讓學生自制了打擊樂器,如:可樂瓶裝米做的沙錘;啤酒瓶蓋串起來做的搖鈴等等。學生拿著自己制作的樂器,為樂曲伴奏,內心充滿了愉悅。
        音樂課評價是教學過程中不可缺少的基本環節,是提高教學質量的重要手段,他體現了學生對音樂的興趣、情感反應、參與態度和程度。這就要求教師在上課時,要隨時發現學生的閃光點,讓每一個學生都有得“優”的機會,讓每一個學生都能體驗到成功的快樂!
         
        總之,我發現,一堂成功的音樂欣賞課往往會給人們一種神奇的、不可思議的感覺。它能給學生創造一種幻覺,即,感受音樂似乎并不費力。在輕松愉快的玩樂中,頃刻之間即可產生美妙的感覺,激發學生濃厚的聽賞音樂的興趣,獲得美好的音樂享受,養成聆聽音樂的良好習慣,培養學生的欣賞能力,逐步積累鑒賞音樂的經驗。
         
         
                                                        二00八年七月十日
         


        【推薦瀏覽其它相關的優秀教育論文】

        上一篇:小學音樂論文:培養學生有感情的唱歌
        下一篇:小學音樂教學中合作學習的現狀與反思



         

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